Fine Particulate Matter

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are solid particles with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers of the most varied physico-chemical composition: from various acids (nitrates, sulfates), to elemental carbon, heavy metals, rock particles, water and ice. PM2.5 fine particulate matter is smaller in size than a human hair.

Sources of PM2.5 include enterprises with coal and mazut boilers and furnaces, thermal power plants, cars and trucks, oil refining and cement production enterprises, fires, road and construction dust, agricultural operations, etc.

Because fine particulate matter particles are so small, they can penetrate not only the lungs but also the cardiovascular system, causing pulmonary and heart diseases, various types of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and increase the risk of premature mortality.